Undergraduate Competencies And Recommendations for Educating Nursing Students (CARES, 2nd. ed.)
Entry-level professional nurses should achieve the following by the end of their formal nursing education:
- Advocate for and promote the integration of palliative care for patients with serious illness or injury and their families across the disease trajectory as essential to quality care.
- Consider the complex and evolving socio-economic factors that influence equitable palliative care delivery within health care systems.
- Reflect on one's ethical, cultural, and spiritual values and their influence on relationships in palliative care.
- Demonstrate respect for diversity, equity, and inclusion as essential for the delivery of culturally sensitive, quality palliative care.
- Communicate effectively, respectfully, and compassionately with patients, families, interprofessional team members, and the public about palliative care.
- Collaborate effectively within the interprofessional team to coordinate the delivery of high-quality palliative care across healthcare settings.
- Demonstrate respect for person-centered care by aligning the plan of care with patient and family values, beliefs, preferences, and goals of care.
- Apply ethical principles, social justice, and moral courage in the care of patients with serious illness, their families, and communities.
- Comply with state and federal laws and institutional policies relevant to the care of patients with serious illness and their families.
- Utilize evidence-based tools to perform a holistic health assessment of pain and other symptoms, considering physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs.
- Synthesize assessment data to develop and implement plans of care that address physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs, utilizing holistic, evidence-based approaches.
- Conduct ongoing reassessment and evaluation of patient outcomes, modifying the plan of care as needed to be consistent with goals of care.
- Provide culturally sensitive care that is responsive to rapidly changing physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs during the dying process and after death.
- Support patients, families, and team members to cope with suffering, grief, loss, and bereavement.
- Implement self-care behaviors to cope with the experience of caring for seriously ill and dying patients and their families.
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